Articles

NIBRS/TIBRS

NIBRS/TIBRS

Incident Based Reporting

In 1990, the federal Crime Awareness and Campus Security Act was enacted into law. The act requires eligible educational institutions to maintain certain crime and arrest data in accordance with UCR definitions.

To take advantage of new technological capabilities, the FBI, in conjunction with the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), took part in a thorough study to modernize the UCR Program. The findings from this study were presented at the 7th Annual National UCR Conference in July 1984. The resulting document, Blueprint for the Future of the Uniform Crime Reporting Program: Final Report of the UCR Study, released in 1985, outlined the emerging Incident Based Reporting (IBR) system. With its implementation, IBR collects data on the circumstances of each crime incident in electronic form. The detail provided by IBR data greatly enhances the speed, availability, accuracy, and usefulness of crime statistics.

The Texas version of IBR, TIBRS, includes all national data elements as well as Texas-specific data. Although many years from full implementation, the Texas IBR program is currently collecting information from 50 IBR-certified agencies, including the Austin Police Department, which remains the largest IBR agency in the nation. At this time, there is not a separate publication for IBR data. IBR data is converted to summary for its inclusion in the Texas Crime Report.

Crime Factors

Statistics gathered under the Uniform Crime Reporting Program are submitted by the law enforcement agencies of Texas and are used to project a statewide picture of crime. Awareness of factors which influence the resulting crime statistics is necessary in order to draw fair conclusions. As these crime factors influence the crime experience of each community, comparisons of crime statistics between communities should not be made without consideration of the individual factors present.

Crime is a social problem of grave concern in which the police are limited in their role of suppression and detection. As stated by the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Criminal Justice, The fact that the police deal daily with crime does not mean that they have unlimited power to prevent it, or reduce it, or deter it. The police did not create and cannot resolve the social conditions that stimulate crime. They do not enact the laws that they are required to enforce, nor do they dispose of the criminal they arrest. The police are only one part of the government; and the government is only one part of society. The criminal process is limited to case by case operations, one criminal or one crime at a time.

Set forth below are some of the conditions which affect the crime types and volume that occur in differing jurisdictions:

 

  1. Crime reporting practices of the citizenry.
  2. Public attitudes toward law enforcement and crime.
  3. The size, density and demographic composition of a jurisdiction's population.
  4. Economic status of the population and area unemployment rates.
  5. Population stability including the number of commuters, transients, and seasonal population variations.
  6. Climate.
  7. Cultural conditions, such as educational, recreational, and religious characteristics.
  8. Community family values.
  9. Law enforcement employment standards and relative strength.
  10. Policies of the prosecuting officials and the courts.
  11. The administrative and investigative efficiency of the local law enforcement agency, including the degree of adherence to crime reporting standards.